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        中央空調變頻節能系統
        來源: | 作者:xldzkj | 發布時間: 2018-10-30 | 1435 次瀏覽 | 分享到:

          隨著我國國民經濟的不斷發展,人民生活水平的不斷提高,中央空調已進入賓館、飯店、工礦企業、辦公樓等各領域。常規中央空調系統是按照最大冷熱負荷進行選型設計。而全年最熱及最冷的天氣只有幾天,因而中央空調大多數時間是在低于機組額定負荷即部分負荷狀態下運行,造成了電能極大的浪費,隨著科技的發展,變頻器已廣泛應用于各行各業,其價格便宜,技術成熟,特別是對風機、水泵的節能改造目前已在工業領域中廣泛推廣,其平均節電在30%以上。一、中央空調節能最佳方法

          由于中央空調主要設備是風機水泵,所以節能最佳方法就是采用變頻器。目前大多數中間空調還采用以往舊的控制方式,即:通過改變壓縮機機組、水泵、風機啟停臺數,以達到調節溫度的目的。

          該調節方式缺點集中表現為如下幾點:

          ● 設備長時間全開或全閉,輪流運行,浪費電能驚人。

          ● 電機直接工頻啟動,沖擊電流大,嚴重影響設備使用壽命。

          ● 溫控效果不佳。當環境或冷熱負荷發生變化時,只能通過增減冷熱水泵的數量或使用擋風板來調節室內溫度,溫度波動大,舒適感差。

          中央空調采用變頻器后有如下優點:

          ● 變頻器可軟啟動電機,大大減小沖擊電流,降低電機軸承磨損,延長軸承壽命。

          ● 調節水泵風機流量、壓力可直接通過更改變頻器的運行頻率來完

          成,可減少或取消擋板、閥門。

          ● 系統耗電大大下降,噪聲減小。

          ● 若采用溫度閉環控制方式,系統可通過檢測環境溫度,自動調節風量,隨天氣、熱負荷的變化自動調節,溫度變化小,調節迅速。

          ● 系統可通過現場總線與中央控制室聯網,實現集中遠程監控。

          二、供水系統變頻節能改造

          無論是溴化鋰機組或電制冷(氟利昂)機組的中央空調系統,主機自身的能量消耗有機組控制,機外的電力消耗組不能控制,而這部分的成本是相當高的,卻通常被人忽視了。尤其是溴化鋰機組,在額定狀態制冷運用行時,機外水泵、冷卻塔的電機耗電量約占總體能源消耗成本的30%(以每公斤油2元、每度電1元計算)。無論從環境保護角度還是用戶切身利益角度,都應將中央空調系統設計成最節能的系統。采用變頻器來控制機外水泵電機、冷卻塔電機是最簡單、最有效的節能措施。一般情況節電20%~50%,每年可節省機組及系統總運行費用的12%~20%,十分驚人。

          1、 冷卻水泵變頻控制

          中央空調的冷卻水泵的功率是根據空調冷凍機組的壓縮機滿負荷工作設計的,當環境溫度及各種外界因素,冷凍機組不需要開啟全部壓縮機組,此時空調的冷凝系統所需要的冷卻量也相應地減小,這時就可以通過變頻調速器來調節冷卻水泵的轉速,降低冷卻水的循環速度及流量,使冷卻水的冷負荷被冷凝系統充分利用,從而達到節能目的。從我公司對中央空調的變頻節能改造得出以下的數據,其冷卻水泵、冷溫水泵在低流量運行時,可以大幅度節省電力,尤其針對直燃機冷卻水流量曲線的特點,采用變頻控制,意義更大,從遠大BZ型直燃機中央空調系統采用海利普變頻器控制水泵測試數據為例:

          當制冷量75%時,機組所需冷卻水流量34%,水泵電耗約20%;

          當制冷量50%時,機組所需冷卻水流量22%,水泵電耗約15%。

          2、 冷溫水泵變頻控制

          中央空調的冷媒水泵的功率是根據空調滿負荷工作設計的,當賓館、酒店、大廈需要的冷量或熱量沒有達到空調的滿負荷,這時就可以通過變頻器調速器來調節冷媒水泵的轉速,降低冷媒水的循環速度,使冷量和熱量得到充分利用,從而達到節能目的。如果制冷、采暖共用一臺水泵,則冬季水泵流量只需50%,自然可大大節省電力;即使是冬夏分泵運行,也可在低負荷季節適當降低流量,如90%流量時,電耗約75%。

          3、 冷卻塔風機變頻控制

          風機功率一般都較小,節電不如水泵明顯。但風機采取變頻控制能極大地有助于冷卻水恒溫,這對于機組制冷恒溫極為關鍵;且能使機組溶液循環穩定,獲得最大限度的節省燃料。冷卻塔風扇低轉速運行還能大幅度減少漂水,節省水源、延緩水質劣化、減少水霧對周圍的影響。

          4、 采用變頻器的其他益處

          由于變頻器的啟動、停止過程是漸強、漸弱式,能消除電機啟動對電網的沖擊。并可避免電機因過載而引起的故障。

          由于電機經常處于低負荷運行,能大幅度延長電機及水泵、風機的壽命,同時因沒有啟動、停止的沖擊,加上流量的減少,管路承壓及所受沖擊力減小,故對管道、閥門、末端設備也起到了保護作用。另一方面,設備噪音、震動均減小,保護了環境。

          5、 中央空調機組外變頻器的控制方式

          ● 根據冷卻水出/入口的溫度改變水泵轉速,調整流量;

          ● 根據冷卻水入口溫度改變冷卻塔風機轉速,調整水溫;

          ● 根據冷溫水出/入口的溫差改變水泵轉速,調整流量;

          ● 根據冷卻水出水的溫度改變水泵轉速,調整流量;

          ●根據冷媒水的回水溫度改變水泵轉速,調節稅流量;

          三、中央空調末端設備—變風量機組變頻控制

          變風量機組也是中央空調系統重要的組成部分,其性能指標(風量、冷量、噪音、用電量)的優劣,除了變風量機組本身的性能外,更重要的還取決于控制的模式、控制器的性能、品質。

          隨著中央空調的不斷普及,變風量機組調節控制器已經經歷了三個發展階段:

          第一階段:風閥調節。能起到調節風量的作用,但電能量消耗大、噪音大。

          第二階段:可控硅調壓調速。能起到調節風量、冷量、節能的作用,對變風量機組的噪音有一定的改良作用,其缺點是體積大、可靠性穩定性低、故障率高。

          第三階段:變頻調節。能最大限度的滿足變風量機組對風量、冷量、噪音的調節要求,節能效果更明顯,體積小,可靠性穩定性高。

          目前,變頻控制器以其特有的優勢,正被中央空調業內人士所青睞。3

        中央空調變頻節能系統.doc

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